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同性恋

同性恋,指在感情及 / 或肉体上恋慕同性别人士。恋慕同性的女性称为女同性恋者(lesbian),男性则称男同性恋者(gay,按粤语音译俗称「基」);亦有以「基」概称男或女同性恋。

临床及科学研究显示,同性恋、或同性别吸引取向的成因是多种因素的,如环境和脾性都是重要元素。

不同的精神健康从业员对同性恋看法不一。自1952年起,《精神紊乱断症及统计手册》(The Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)[DSM],下称《手册》)成为精神健康问题诊断学权威读本,从1952至1973年,该书一直将同性恋定义为心理问题。然而于1973年该书第二版第六册时,却改称同性恋为正常行为,此改动由心理卫生专家Robert Spitzer所主导;然而至2001年,Spitzer指「再定向治疗」(指求助者 / 病人自愿摆脱不理想的同性吸引取向与行为,藉专业辅及 / 或宗教手段,发展其潜藏的异性恋倾向)能有效治疗同性恋。[1]亦有多项研究支持其结[2] (译按:Robert Spitzer的说法,在去年有新的更正 ) )

值得留意的是,今天《手册》确认,治疗员可诊断病人为性向紊乱,处方心理治疗。此外,由于有性向问题的青少年自杀率甚高,有急切必要在病人年纪较小时即进行治疗,能有效阻止引向自的心理机制发展。[3]

就同性恋更深入分析的文章,可看下列:

 

参考资料

[1] Historic Gay Advocate Now Believes Change is Possible, National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality, 2001: May.
http://www.narth.com/docs/spitzer3.html (accessed 3/18/10).  ^

[2] National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) Scientific Advisory Committee (2009). What Research Shows: NARTH’s Response to the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Claims on Homosexuality. Journal of Human Sexuality, 1, 1-128.: cf. http://www.narth.com/docs/journalsummary.html (accessed 3/18/10) for a summary of this peer-reviewed monograph. ^

[3] Rekers GA, Oram KB. Child and adolescent therapy for precursors to adulthood homosexual tendencies. Chapter 7 in Julie Harren Hamilton and Philip J. Henry (Eds.), Handbook of Therapy for Unwanted Homosexual Attractions: A Guide for Treatment. Palm Beach, FL: Xulon Press, 2009, pages 247-320. ^

 

延伸阅读

Bailey, J., Miller, J., Willerman, L. (1993) Maternally rated childhood gender nonconformity in homosexuals and heterosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 22, 5: 461-469.

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Akman, D. (1991) A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect. 15: 537-556.

Bradley, S., Zucker, K. (1997) Gender identity disorder: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 34, 7: 872-880.

Byne, W., Parsons, B. (1993) Human sexual orientation: The biologic theories reappraised. Archives of General Psychiatry. 50: 228-239.

Finkelhor, D. (1984) Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. NY: The Free Press.

Fisher, S., Greenberg, R. (1996) Freud Scientifically Reappraised. NY: Wiley & Sons.

Pillard, R. (1988) Sexual orientation and mental disorder. Psychiatric Annals. 18, 1: 52-56.

Rekers, G et.al. (1983) "Family Correlates of Male Childhood Gender Disturbance,” Journal of Genetics and Psychology 142, No. 1: 31-42.Rekers, G and Swihart J (1989) "The Association of Gender Identity Disorder with Parental Separation,” Psychological Reports 65, No. 3, Vol. 2: 1272-74.

Ross, M.W. (Ed), (1983) "Parental and interpersonal relationships of transsexual and masculine and feminine homosexual men,” Journal of Homosexuality, Special Issue, Homosexuality & Social Sex Roles, volume 9, No. 1: 75-85.

Satinover, J. (1996) Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth, Grand Rapids, MI: Hamewith Books, pp. 87-88 and 221-228.

Steed, J.J. and Templer, D (2010) "Gay Men and Lesbian Women with Molestation History: Impact on Sexual Orientation and Experience of Pleasure,” The Open Psychology Journal, Vol. 3, 36-41.

Templer, D et.al., (2001) "Comparative Data of Childhood and Adolescence Molestation in Heterosexual and Homosexual Persons,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 30, No. 5, 535 – 541.

Wolfe, C. (Ed), (1999) Homosexuality and American Public Life, Washington DC: Spence Publishing Co., pp. 85-97.

(文章来自Facts About Youth-A project of the American College of Pediatricians, 2013. "Homosexuality”,网络连结:http://factsaboutyouth.com/posts/homosexuality )


 



关键字 Keywords: 同性恋 Homosexuality , LGBT LGBT , 女同性恋 Lesbian , 男同性恋 Gay , 精神紊乱断症及统计手册 DSM